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Citation & Style Guide

This guide will help you find information, tools and resources on citation and style.

6th Edition

NOTE:  Most of these instructions are based on the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.  A 7th edition was recently released.  These instructions will be updated before the spring semester begins.

Who Uses American Psychological Association (APA) style?

  • Psychology
  • Sometimes by Education
  • Other Social Sciences fields
  • If you aren't sure which citation style to use, be sure to ask your Professors which style they prefer for assignments.

What's Unique About APA?

  • Bibliography heading: Use "References" as page heading.
  • Use in-text citations. Example: (Jones, 2005)
  • Include page number in in-text citations only in the rare case where a direct quote (placed in quotation marks) is used. Example: (Jones, 2005, p. 79)
  • Author's name: In your References, use only the initials of first and middle names.
  • Two authors: For in-text citations, name both authors the first time a source is mentioned. Example: (Weterle & So┼étysiak, 2005). In subsequent in-text citations for the same work, continue to name both authors.
  • Three to five authors: For in-text citations, list up to 5 authors the first time a source is mentioned. Example: (Chen, Wu, Kee, Lin, & Shui, 2009). In subsequent in-text citations for the same work, use the first author and et al. Example: (Chen et al., 2009). 
  • More than five authors: If there are more than 5 authors, use et al. Example: (Takeuchi et al., 2014).
  • Year of publication: In your References, place it right after author's name.
  • Article title: In your References, do not place quotation marks around article title. Use sentence case (capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word following a colon, and all proper nouns). More details on formatting of titles here:  How to Capitalize and Format Reference Titles in APA Style.
  • Journal title: In your References, do not use sentence case. Capitalize all major words in journal titles. More details on formatting of titles here:  How to Capitalize and Format Reference Titles in APA Style.
  • Journal issue numbers:  If each issue of a volume is paginated separately, include the journal issue number (if available) along with the volume number.  On the other hand, if pagination continues from one issue to the next, do not include the issue number.
  • Website title:  In your References, do not place quotation marks around the title. Use sentence case (capitalize only the first word of the title, the first word following a colon, and all proper nouns). More details on formatting of titles here:  How to Capitalize and Format Reference Titles in APA Style.
  • Online resources: In your References, give the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or the URL. Because online materials can be moved to new URLs, APA recommends providing a DOI when it is available. NOTE: PsycINFO sometimes provides a URL with a prefix that includes "middlebury" and "ezproxy." That URL will work only for Middlebury researchers, so don't use it. Instead, revise the URL so that it allows anyone to see the article title/abstract.
  • Indentation: In your References, all lines after the first line of each entry should be indented one-half inch from the left margin.

Print Book Examples

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

(Note: Examples follow APA 6th ed.)

E-Book Example

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Retrieved from [website URL].

De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytay’s tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved from http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html

Print Journal Example

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page range. 

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55(2), 893-896.

Special rules:

  • If each issue of a volume is paginated separately, include the journal issue number (if available) along with the volume number.  On the other hand, if pagination continues from one issue to the next, do not include the issue number

 

Online Journal Example

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41(3), 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Special rules:

  • If a DOI is not available, provide the URL of the journal's home page. For example: Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. Retrieved from https://www.emeraldinsight.com/journal/ejm
  • If each issue of a volume is paginated separately, include the journal issue number (if available) along with the volume number.  On the other hand, if pagination continues from one issue to the next, do not include the issue number

Print Magazine Example

Cite like a journal article, but give the year and the month for monthly magazines. Add the day for weekly magazines.

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Online Magazine Example

Same as print, except add URL at the end.

Rupley, S. (2010, February 26). The myth of the benign monopoly. Salon. Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/

Online Newspaper Example

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from [website URL].

Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com

Website Example

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from [website URL].

Angeli, E., Wagner, J., Lawrick, E., Moore, K., Anderson, M., Soderland, L., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved from http://owl.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/.

Book Review Example

Dudai, R. (2006). Understanding perpetrators in genocides and mass atrocities. [Review of the book Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing, by J. Waller]. The British Journal of Sociology, 57, 699-707. doi:10.1111/j.1468-4446.2006.00132.x

How would I cite an indirect source?

Question:

If I read a paper by Ankeny and it cites a fact from a paper by Zeoli, and I want to refer to the fact in the paper by Zeoli, would I cite Zeoli?

Answer:

No. You would cite Ankeny. Please read the "Important to know" details below, though.

How to:

Your in-text citation would look like this:

Zeoli (as cited in Ankeny, 2013) argued that...

Your reference list would then include the paper by Ankeny. Your reference list would not include the paper by Zeoli, because you didn't actually read that paper.

Important to know:

In this context, Ankeny is considered an indirect or secondary source because it refers to a primary source by Zeoli. Follow the above instructions only in rare circumstances (eg, when you're not able to access the primary source). It's best to take the extra step of reading the primary source and citing it. That way, you'll know you're getting the information exactly right.  Talk with your professors about this; they might have additional advice.

Annotated Bibliographies

An annotated bibliography includes a citation and a written statement or abstract about each work to help potential readers decide if an item is relevant to their interests. 

Sample Papers