Skip to main content

Citation & Style Guide

This guide will help you find information, tools and resources on citation and style.

Who Uses Chicago/Turabian Style?

  • History
  • Other fields in the Social Sciences
  • Other fields in the Humanities
  • The Turabian handbook interprets Chicago Style in a more streamlined way for students & researchers.
  • If you aren't sure which citation style to use, be sure to ask your professors which style they prefer for assignments.

What's Unique about Chicago?

  • Two systems: Chicago has two systems. The "Notes & Bibliography" system uses footnotes or endnotes. The "Author-Date" system uses in-text citations. Ask your professor which system they prefer.
  • Example footnote: 2. Scott Lash, Economies of Signs (London: SAGE, 1993), 241.
  • Example in-text citation: (Pollan 2006, 99–100)
  • Bibliography heading: Use "Bibliography" as page heading.
  • Online resources: Give the URL, DOI (Digital Object Identifier), or database name.

Author-Date Example (In-Text Citations)

Use in-text citations for the Author-Date system.  (Author last name year, page number).

Example: (Pollan 2006, 99–100)

Include a Bibliography at the end.  Note that the date is after the author instead of at the end as with the notes-bibliography style.

Example:  Smith, Zadie. 2016. Swing Time. New York: Penguin Press.

See Chicago Manual of Style Online for a basic overview of the author-date system structure

For examples see Author-Date Sample Citations.

Notes & Bibliography Examples

Please see below for examples of how to cite some of the most common sources in your footnotes and bibliographies. For more examples, see the Turabian Quick Guide or the Quick Guide to Chicago.   

Chicago short-title citation: when you cite the same title more than once, you may use a shortened form after the first full citation: surname(s) of author(s), shortened title, page number [if available].

(Note: the examples below follow Chicago 16th ed.)

Print Book Example

Footnote

   1. Mary N. Woods, Beyond the Architect’s Eye: Photographs and the American Built Environment (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009), 199.
   2. Woods, Beyond the Architect's Eye, 233.

Bibliography

Woods, Mary N. Beyond the Architect’s Eye: Photographs and the American Built Environment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009.

Author-Date examples

For Chapters in edited books see 14.112 Contribution to a multiauthor book.

E-Book Example

Same as book, but add source of online edition or eBook. Electronic sources do not always include page numbers, so it may be appropriate in a note to include a chapter or paragraph number (if available), a section heading, or a descriptive phrase that follows the organizational divisions of the work. 

See more E-Book examples (from Chicago Manual of Style online)

Footnote

   1. Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (Newburyport: Dover Publications, 2012), Ebook Library edition.
   2. Austen, Pride and Prejudice, chap. 24.

Bibliography

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Newburyport: Dover Publications, 2012. EBook Library edition.

Author-Date examples

Print Journal Example

Footnote

   1. T. H. Breen, “Will American Consumers Buy a Second American Revolution?,” Journal of American History 93, no. 2 (2006): 405.  
   2. Breen, “American Consumers," 406.

Bibliography

Breen, T. H. “Will American Consumers Buy a Second American Revolution?” Journal of American History 93, no. 2 (2006): 404-8.

Author-Date examples

Online Journal Example

Same information as print, but add the access date and article DOI (Digital Object identifier) at end. If no DOI is available, add the URL of the article, or if from a database, the database name instead (see Chicago 14.271).

Footnote

   1. Brian Lennon, “New Media Critical Homologies,” Postmodern Culture 19, no. 2 (2009): 23, accessed May 5, 2014, http://dx.doi:10.1086/599247.
   2. Lennon, “New Media Critical Homologies,” 20.

Bibliography (Article with DOI)

Lennon, Brian. “New Media Critical Homologies.” Postmodern Culture 19, no. 2 (2009). Accessed May 5, 2014. http://dx.doi:10.1086/599247.

Bibliography (Article from Database)

Lennon, Brian. “New Media Critical Homologies.” Postmodern Culture 19, no. 2 (2009). Accessed May 5, 2014. Project Muse.

Author-Date examples

Online Magazine Example

Include the URL for the article.

Footnote

   1. Katharine Mieszkowski, “A Deluge Waiting to Happen,” Salon, July 3, 2008, http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/07/03/floods/index.html.
   2. Mieszkowski, "Deluge."

Bibliography

Mieszkowski, Katharine. “A Deluge Waiting to Happen.” Salon, July 3, 2008. http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2008/07/03/floods/index.html.

Author-Date examples

Newspaper Examples (Print and Online)

For online newspaper articles, add the URL for the article at the end of the elements of a print citation; if the URL is very long, use the URL for the newspaper’s home page. If from a database, include the database name (see Chicago 14.271). Page numbers may usually be omitted.  For more examples of basic elements, see Chicago 14.203.

Footnote

   1. Julianna Morales, “Middlebury Residents React to the Election,” The Middlebury Campus, November 17, 2016.
   2. Doyle McManus, “The Candor War,” Chicago Tribune, July 29, 2010, http://www.chicagotribune.com.
   3. McManus, "Candor War."

Bibliography

McManus, Doyle. “The Candor War.” Chicago Tribune, July 29, 2010. http://www.chicagotribune.com.

Bibliography (News Article from Database)

McManus, Doyle. “What Others Are Saying.” Chicago Tribune, July 29, 2010. ProQuest.

Author-Date examples

Website Example

For most Web sites, include an author if a site has one, the title of the site, the sponsor, the date of publication or modified date (date of most recent changes), and the site’s URL. If a site does not have a date of publication or modified date, give the date you accessed the site.

Footnote

   1. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts,” McDonald’s Corporation, accessed July 19, 2008, http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

Bibliography

McDonald’s Corporation. “McDonald’s Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts.” Accessed July 19, 2008. http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

Author-Date examples

Book Review Example

Cite book reviews by author of the review and include book title and author(s) or editor(s). Follow applicable guidelines for citing periodicals.

Footnote

   1. B.J. Murray.  Review of Chamber Music: An Essential History, by Mark A. Radice.  CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, Sept. 2012: 93. Accessed Oct. 21, 2014. Academic OneFile.

Bibliography (Article from Database)

Murray, B.J. Review of Chamber Music: An Essential History, by Mark A. Radice. CHOICE: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries, Sept. 2012. Accessed Oct. 21, 2014. Academic OneFile.

Author-Date examples

DVD

Footnote:

   1. Sherlock Holmes, directed by Guy Ritchie (2009; Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2010), DVD.

Bibliography:

Sherlock Holmes. Directed by Guy Ritchie. 2009. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video, 2010. DVD.

More DVD examples (from Chicago Manual of Style online)

How to Cite Primary Sources

The Chicago & Turabian Manuals include primary sources as well by type of source (newspaper, letters, documents, etc.) but sometimes you will need to find the closest match and adapt your citation.

Chicago Manual of Style, 17th edition, Manuscript Collections

In particular:

14.229: Examples of note forms for manuscript collections

14.230: Examples of bibliography entries for manuscript collections

General principles:

  • The form for citing unpublished, archival materials is less standardized than for published sources.
  • Adopt a consistent form in your work.
  • Describe the item in the Notes, but describe only the collection or archive in the bibliography (unless you cite only one item from a given collection).

Structure

Footnote
1. Name of author, "Name of item," date (date-mo-year), Name of collection, Item locator, Repository.

Bibliography
Name of collection, Name of repository.

Middlebury Examples:

Letter

See Chicago 14.228 re: Collections of letters

Footnote
1. Joseph Battell to President Ezra Brainerd, 2 February 1893, A2 President Brainerd, Middlebury College Special Collections and Archives (hereafter cited as MC Archives). http://middarchive.middlebury.edu/cdm/ref/collection/archadmin/id/2136

Bibliography
A2 President Brainerd, Middlebury College Special Collections and Archives.

Scrapbook

Footnote
1. Ruth Hesselgrave, Scrapbook of Ruth Hesselgrave, class 1918, circa 1915-1919, College Archives, Middlebury College Special Collections and Archives.

Bibliography
College Archives, Middlebury College Special Collections and Archives.

Photograph

Footnote
1. Photograph of Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury College President, 1864, College Archives A2 PF, Middlebury College Special Collections and Archives.

Bibliography
No bibliographic entry is required for photographs. Put all required information in the footnote or text.

More help:

Want to View a Sample Paper?

Sample paper using Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed) with footnotes (opens as a PDF document)

Sample paper using the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed) author / date (opens as a PDF document)

Annotated Bibliographies

An annotated bibliography includes a citation and a written statement or abstract about each work to help potential readers decide if an item is relevant to their interests.