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Citation & Style Guide

This guide will help you find information, tools and resources on citation and style.

Who uses National Library of Medicine (NLM) style?

  • Neuroscience
  • If you aren't sure which citation style to use, be sure to ask your professors which style they prefer for assignments.

What's unique about NLM?

  • Bibliography heading: Use "References" as the page heading.
  • If you use citation software that does not include NLM format, use the Vancouver format instead
  • In-text citations: NLM provides three options for the formatting of in-text citations. Ask your professor which format they prefer, and consult the examples below from USC Libraries.

What's essential in NLM?

NLM style may seem complicated, but there is some flexibility in the finer points of formatting. The main goal is to allow readers to find your sources as they appeared when you consulted them.

At Middlebury, your professors will likely be strict in their adherence to these essential rules:  

  • Author names:  There should be no punctuation in first and middle name initials, and no accent marks or diacritics
  • Journal titles: Use abbreviations rules specified below in Journal or Magazine Examples; don’t use periods

Print Book Example

Surname First-and-Middle-Initials, Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Title. [Edition.] Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. [Language.]

Sacks OW. The man who mistook his wife for a hat and other clinical tales. New York: Perennial Library; 1987. 


Note:

  • Indicate the edition when a book is published in more than one edition.
  • Provide the language if not English. 
  • Pagination is optional.
  • If there is no author, only an editor, provide the name of the editor and follow it with a comma and the word “editor” (spelled with a lowercase “e”).
  • More info: Books (from Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers)

E-Book Example

Surname First-and-Middle-Initials, Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Title [Internet]. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [Date of Citation]. Availability.

Brodsky MC. Pediatric neuro-ophthalmology [Internet]. New York: Springer Science + Business Media; 2016 [cited 2020 May 5]. Available from: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-3384-6.


Note:

  • Indicate the edition when a book is published in more than one edition.
  • Provide the language if not English.
  • If there is no author, only an editor, provide the name of the editor and follow it with a comma and the word “editor” (spelled with a lowercase “e”).
  • More info: Books and Other Individual Titles on the Internet (from Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers)

Book Chapter Example

Chapter Author’s Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Chapter Title. In: Book Editor’s Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Book title. Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. Pagination. 

Osakada F, Takahashi M.  Stem cells in the developing and adult nervous system. In: Steinhoff G, editor. Regenerative medicine:  From protocol to patient. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer; 2013. p. 129-152. 


Note: 

  • Indicate the edition when a book is published in more than one edition.
  • Provide the language if not English. 
  • More info: Citing Contributions to Books  (from Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers)

Journal or Magazine Example

Surname First-and-Middle-Initials, Surname First-and-Middle Initials. Article Title. Journal Title. Date of Publication;Volume(Issue):Pagination.

Hoy KE, Fitzgerald PB. Brain Stimulation in Psychiatry and Its Effects on Cognition. Nat Rev Neurol [Internet]. 2010 May;6(5):267-75.


Note:

  • In citations to journals and magazines that are published in print (or, in print with an online version), titles are abbreviated.
  • Use the abbreviations you find in PubMed. If a journal abbreviation is not included in PubMed, follow the rules in the Abbreviation for Journal Titles section of the NLM Style Guide and use the word abbreviations defined in this List of Title Word Abbreviations (LTWA), which is based on ISO 4, an an international standard for the abbreviation of serial titles.
  • Provide the language if not English.
  • More info: Chapter 1: Journals (from Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers)

Online-Only Journal or Magazine

Surname First-and-Middle-Initials, Surname First-and-Middle Initials. Article Title. Journal Title [Type of Medium]. Date of Publication [date of citation];Volume(Issue):Pagination. Availability.

Hoy KE, Fitzgerald PB. Brain Stimulation in Psychiatry and Its Effects on Cognition. Nat Rev Neurol [Internet]. 2010 May [cited 2020 May 2];6(5):267-75. Available from: https://www-nature-com.ezproxy.middlebury.edu/articles/nrneurol.2010.30. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2010.30.


Note:

  • In citations to journals and magazines that are published only online, with no print equivalent, journal titles are not abbreviated.
  • Provide the language if not English.
  • Include any date of update/revision and a date of citation in square brackets following the date of publication.
  • When the pagination of the article is not provided, calculate the length of the article using the best means possible, e.g., in terms of print pages, screens, paragraphs, or bytes.
  • If more than one URL can be used to locate the article, provide the URL that you used.
  • If a DOI is provided then place it after the URL.
  • More info: Journals on the Internet (from Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers)

Newspaper Example

Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Article Title. Newspaper Title [Type of Medium] (Edition). Date of Publication [date of revision, date of citation]:Section;Volume(Issue):Pagination. Availability.

McCright J. New COVID-19 testing sites to pop up in Middlebury. Addison Independent [Internet] (Middlebury, Vermont). 2020 May 22;Sect. A:1 [cited 2020 May 29]. Available from: https://addisonindependent.com/news/new-covid-19-testing-sites-pop-middlebury


Note:

  • In citations to newspaper articles, newspaper titles are not abbreviated.
  • Add the location where a newspaper is published if the newspaper title does not indicate it
  • Provide section information, if it exists
  • Include only the beginning page number.
  • Provide the language if not English.
  • Include any date of update/revision and a date of citation in square brackets following the date of publication.
  • If more than one URL can be used to locate the article, provide the URL that you used.
  • More info: Newspaper Articles (from Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers)

Website Example

Surname First-and-Middle-Initials. Webpage Title [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Date of Publication [date of revision, date of citation]. Availability.

NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison. Positive Emotions and Your Health [Internet]. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2015 August [cited 2020 March 19]. Available from: https://newsinhealth.nih.gov/2015/08/positive-emotions-your-health .


Note:

  • Sometimes it is impossible to determine dates of publication and revision, authorship and/or publishing responsibility. Do your best to work with the information provided.
  • It is not sufficient to provide only a URL.
  • More info: Web Sites (from Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers)