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History - European

A guide to library and quality web resources useful for European history research

Which Style Does History Use?


History uses "Turabian".  The Turabian manual interprets Chicago Style in an easy to understand way for students. It is still Chicago Style.

Find print copies at the Library 
Reference Area
Main floor, middle shelves
LB2369 .T8

Online Resources
A Quick Guide is available online from the publisher or you can consult the full Chicago Manual Online.

Citing Primary Sources

The Chicago & Turabian Manuals include primary sources as well by type of source (newspaper, letters, documents, etc.) but sometimes you will need to find the closest match and adapt your citation.

Annotated Bibliographies

Sample Papers

Sample paper using Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed) with footnotes (opens as a PDF document)

Sample paper using the Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed) author / date (opens as a PDF document)

Zotero (Citation Tool / Manager)


Organize your research aZotero logo and linknd automatically create bibliographies in MLA, APA, Chicago, Turabian, and more. Zotero is free tool you download and use with a connector for Firefox, Chrome or Safari.

Download: Zotero website

Learn More: Midd Zotero Guide

More Citation Help

When you use the words, ideas, or creations of someone else, cite them. More examples of how and when to cite as well as links to tools like Zotero, to make it easier to keep track of your sources, can be found on the main Citation Guide.

citation guide


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